GENERATING STATION AND INDUSTRIAL PLANT
PROTECTION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE AND DESIGN
November 14th - 17th 2017

Performing Electrical Studies (day 1 Morning)

The Basics
  • History
  • Magnetism
  • Bohr Model
  • Voltage & Current
  • Resistance
  • Time Constants
  • Capacitance
  • Inductance
  • Impedance
  • Simple Transformer
  • 3-Phase Advantages & Electrical Systems
  • Generating Station Electrical Configurations
  • 3-Phase Relationships
  • Transformer Connection Phasors
Conversions
Conductor Parameters
  • Buses
  • Insulated Cable
  • Overhead Cable
Voltage Studies
  • Transformer Tap Optimization
  • Bus Voltage Drop
  • Line Voltage Drop
  • Collapsing Delta
  • Capacitive Voltage Rise
Power Transfer
  • Two Generator System
  • Transmission System Considerations
Paralleling Buses
Ohmic Short Circuit Calculations
Applying the Per Unit System (day 1 Afternoon)
Conversions
Short Circuit Studies
  • Delta/Delta Short Circuit
  • Wye/Delta Short Circuit
  • Delta/Wye Short Circuit
  • Phase to Phase Faults
  • Phase to Ground Faults
  • Sequence Impedances
  • Z0/Z1 Ratio
  • Alternative Ground Fault Procedure
  • Generator Short Circuit
  • Generator De-Excitation
  • Motor Short Circuit Contribution
AUXILIARY SYSTEM PROTECTION (DAY 2 MORNING)
Time Overcurrent Protection
  • Asymmetrical Current
  • Overcurrent Curves
  • Overcurrent Elements
  • Induced Currents
  • CT Safety Ground
  • Coordination
  • Motor Overcurrent
  • MCC Source Feeder Overcurrent
  • Bus-Tie Overcurrent
  • Transformer Secondary Side Overcurrent
  • Transformer Primary Side Overcurrent
  • Residual Ground Overcurrent
Transformer Differential
Residual Voltage Transfer Schemes
High Impedance Grounding (day 2 Afternoon)
Applications
  •  Advantages
  •  Induced Voltages
  •  Transformer Coupling
  •  Transient Mitigation
  •  Charging Microfarads
  •  Neutral Grounding Transformers
  •  I²T Calculations
  •  Wye Grounded/Broken Delta Schemes
  •  Mitigating Neutral Instability or 3-phase Ferro Resonance
  •  One Transformer Schemes
  •  Two Transformer Schemes
GENERATOR PROTECTION (DAY 3)
Generator Data
GSU Transformer Data
Transmission System Data
Protective Relay Ohms
Switchyard Configurations
Switchyard Protection Concerns
  •  Critical Clearing Times
  •  Infeed Ohms
  •  Proposed Switchyard Protection
Generator Protective Functions
  •  Backup Impedance (21)
  •  Volts/Hz (24)
  •  Sync Check (25)
  •  Reverse Power (32)
  •  Loss of Field (40)
  •  Negative Phase Sequence (46)
  •  Inadvertent Energization (50/27)
  •  Pole Flashover (50NF)
  •  Stator Ground (64)
  •  Out of Step (78)
  •  Over/Under Frequency (81)
NERC Boundaries
Tripping Philosophy
Tripping Redundancy
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS SUPPORTING CALCULATIONS (DAY 4 MORNING)
Apparatus Life Estimation
Buses
  • Bus Bar Forces
Cable
  • Withstand Seconds
  • Fusion Seconds
  • Line Loss
Circuit Breakers
  • Arc voltages
  • Overvoltage Testing
  • Short Circuit Duty
Generators
  • Generator Temperature
  • Overvoltage Testing
  • X/R Ratio
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS SUPPORTING CALCULATIONS (DAY 4 AFTERNOON)
Metering
  • Three Element
  • Two Element
  • Demand
  • Watts
Motors
  • Overvoltage Testing
  • Locked Rotor Amps
  • X/R Ratio
  • Voltage Drop
  • Switching Transients
  • Unbalanced Supply Voltages
Transformers
  • Current Transformer Burden
  • Losses
  • X/R Ratio